A number of different plans have been introduced that would raise the age of Medicare eligibility.[126][130][131][132] Some have argued that, as the population ages and the ratio of workers to retirees increases, programs for the elderly need to be reduced. Since the age at which Americans can retire with full Social Security benefits is rising to 67, it is argued that the age of eligibility for Medicare should rise with it (though people can begin receiving reduced Social Security benefits as early as age 62).
If you are a Minnesota beneficiary and considering enrollment in a Medicare Advantage plan, it is important to compare and evaluate the Medicare plan options available to you. While similar Medicare Advantage plans may be offered throughout the state, the cost for premiums may vary depending on your county of residence. You should also take note that some Medicare Advantage plans in Minnesota may offer monthly premiums as low as $0. If your service area offers a Medicare Advantage plan with a $0 premium, keep in mind that the plan may still include other costs besides the premium, such as copayments, coinsurance, and deductibles. In addition, you must still pay your Medicare Part B premium.
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), administers Medicare, Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA), and parts of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) ("Obamacare").[13] Along with the Departments of Labor and Treasury, the CMS also implements the insurance reform provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) and most aspects of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 as amended. The Social Security Administration (SSA) is responsible for determining Medicare eligibility, eligibility for and payment of Extra Help/Low Income Subsidy payments related to Part D Medicare, and collecting some premium payments for the Medicare program.

There are two ways for providers to be reimbursed in Medicare. "Participating" providers accept "assignment," which means that they accept Medicare's approved rate for their services as payment (typically 80% from Medicare and 20% from the beneficiary). Some non participating doctors do not take assignment, but they also treat Medicare enrollees and are authorized to balance bill no more than a small fixed amount above Medicare's approved rate. A minority of doctors are "private contractors," which means they opt out of Medicare and refuse to accept Medicare payments altogether. These doctors are required to inform patients that they will be liable for the full cost of their services out-of-pocket in advance of treatment.[60]
As a result, an estimated 320,000 Medicare Cost enrollees in Minnesota need new coverage for 2019. There are 21 counties where Medicare Cost plans will continue to be available, but Medicare Cost enrollees in the remaining counties cannot keep their Cost plans. Instead, they can either enroll in a Medicare Advantage plan (some will be automatically enrollees in a comparable Medicare Advantage plan, although they’ll have an option to pick something else instead), or select a Medigap plan to supplement their Original Medicare (enrollees whose Medicare Cost plans are ending have guaranteed issue rights to a Medigap plan, so they can purchase one even if they have pre-existing medical conditions).
As of January 1, 2016, Medicare's unfunded obligation over the 75 year timeframe is $3.8 trillion for the Part A Trust Fund and $28.6 trillion for Part B. Over an infinite timeframe the combined unfunded liability for both programs combined is over $50 trillion, with the difference primarily in the Part B estimate.[85][89] These estimates assume that CMS will pay full benefits as currently specified over those periods though that would be contrary to current United States law. In addition, as discussed throughout each annual Trustees' report, "the Medicare projections shown could be substantially understated as a result of other potentially unsustainable elements of current law." For example, current law effectively provides no raises for doctors after 2025; that is unlikely to happen. It is impossible for actuaries to estimate unfunded liability other than assuming current law is followed (except relative to benefits as noted), the Trustees state "that actual long-range present values for (Part A) expenditures and (Part B/D) expenditures and revenues could exceed the amounts estimated by a substantial margin."
Out-of-network/non-contracted providers are under no obligation to treat Blue Cross NC members, except in emergency situations. For a decision about whether we will cover an out-of-network service, we encourage you or your provider to ask us for a pre-service organization determination before you receive the service. Please call our customer service number or see your Evidence of Coverage for more information, including the cost-sharing that applies to out-of-network services.

The most common types of Medicare Advantage plans are health maintenance organization (HMO) plans, which accounted for the majority of total Medicare Advantage enrollments in 2017, preferred provider organization (PPO) plans, private fee-for-service (PFFS) plans and special needs plans (SNPS). The basic qualifications to join one of these plans are living in the plan’s service area, having Medicare Parts A and B, and not having end-stage renal disease. HMO point-of-service (HMOPOS) plans and medical savings account (MSA) plans are less common.


A: Original Medicare, also known as traditional Medicare, includes Part A and Part B. It allows beneficiaries to go to any doctor or hospital that accepts Medicare, anywhere in the United States. Medicare will pay its share of the charge for each service it covers. You pay the rest, unless you have additional insurance that covers those costs. Original Medicare provides many health care services and supplies, but it doesn’t pay all your expenses. — Read Full Answer
In most instances, prescription drug coverage is included in Medicare Advantage plans, with the exception of the MSA plan. If you want to have prescription drug coverage and you’re choosing an HMO or PPO Medicare Advantage plan, it’s important to select a plan that includes prescription coverage (most of them do), because you can’t purchase stand-alone Medicare Part D (drug coverage) if you have an HMO or PPO Advantage plan. SNPs are required to cover prescriptions. PFFS plans sometimes cover prescriptions, but if you have one that doesn’t, you can supplement it with a Medicare Part D plan.
This measure, established under the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA), examines Medicare spending in the context of the federal budget. Each year, MMA requires the Medicare trustees to make a determination about whether general fund revenue is projected to exceed 45 percent of total program spending within a seven-year period. If the Medicare trustees make this determination in two consecutive years, a "funding warning" is issued. In response, the president must submit cost-saving legislation to Congress, which must consider this legislation on an expedited basis. This threshold was reached and a warning issued every year between 2006 and 2013 but it has not been reached since that time and is not expected to be reached in the 2016-2022 "window." This is a reflection of the reduced spending growth mandated by the ACA according to the Trustees.
Congress also attempted to reduce payments to public Part C Medicare health plans by aligning the rules that establish Part C plans' capitated fees more closely with the FFS paid for comparable care to "similar beneficiaries" under Parts A and B of Medicare. Primarily these reductions involved much discretion on the part of CMS and examples of what CMS did included effectively ending a Part C program Congress had previously initiated to increase the use of Part C in rural areas (the so-called Part C PFFS plan) and reducing over time a program that encouraged employers and unions to create their own Part C plans not available to the general Medicare beneficiary base (so-called Part C EGWP plans) by providing higher reimbursement. These two types of Part C plans had been identified by MedPAC as the programs that most negatively affected parity between the cost of Medicare beneficiaries on Parts A/B/C and the costs of beneficiaries not on Parts A/B/C. These efforts to reach parity have been more than successful. As of 2015, all beneficiaries on A/B/C cost 4% less per person than all beneficiaries not on A/B/C. But whether that is because the cost of the former decreased or the cost of the latter increased is not known.
In the 1970s, less than a decade after the beginning of fee for service Medicare, Medicare beneficiaries gained the option to receive their Medicare benefits through managed, capitated health plans, mainly HMOs, as an alternative to FFS Original Medicare, but only under random Medicare demonstration programs. The Balanced Budget Act of 1997 formalized the demonstration programs into Medicare Part C, introduced the term Medicare+Choice as a pseudo-brand for this option. Initially, fewer insurers participated than expected, leading to little competition.[2] In a 2003 law, the capitated-fee benchmark/bidding process was changed effective in 2005 to increase insurer participation, but also increasing the costs per person of the program.
Both House Republicans and President Obama proposed increasing the additional premiums paid by the wealthiest people with Medicare, compounding several reforms in the ACA that would increase the number of wealthier individuals paying higher, income-related Part B and Part D premiums. Such proposals are projected to save $20 billion over the course of a decade,[150] and would ultimately result in more than a quarter of Medicare enrollees paying between 35 and 90 percent of their Part B costs by 2035, rather than the typical 25 percent. If the brackets mandated for 2035 were implemented today,[when?] it would mean that anyone earning more than $47,000 (as an individual) or $94,000 (as a couple) would be affected. Under the Republican proposals, affected individuals would pay 40 percent of the total Part B and Part D premiums, which would be equivalent of $2,500 today.[151]
If you decide to leave a Medicare Advantage plan and return back to Original Medicare, you must notify your Medicare Advantage plan carrier. Otherwise Medicare will continue to show that you are enrolled in the Advantage plan instead of Medicare. This is a common billing nightmare that we see among people who enrolled on their own without the help of an agent.
Plans are insured through UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company or one of its affiliated companies, a Medicare Advantage organization with a Medicare contract. Enrollment in the plan depends on the plan’s contract renewal with Medicare. UnitedHealthcare Insurance Company pays royalty fees to AARP for use of its intellectual property. These fees are used for the general purposes of AARP. AARP and its affiliates are not insurers. You do not need to be an AARP member to enroll.
Most Medicare enrollees do not pay a monthly Part A premium, because they (or a spouse) have had 40 or more 3-month quarters in which they paid Federal Insurance Contributions Act taxes. The benefit is the same no matter how much or how little the beneficiary paid as long as the minimum number of quarters is reached. Medicare-eligible persons who do not have 40 or more quarters of Medicare-covered employment may buy into Part A for an annual adjusted monthly premium of:
We make every effort to show all available Medicare Part D or Medicare Advantage plans in your service area. However, since our data is provided by Medicare, it is possible that this may not be a complete listing of plans available in your service area. For a complete listing please contact 1-800-MEDICARE (TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048), 24 hours a day/7 days a week or consult www.medicare.gov.
Footnote: Medi-Cal is California's Medicaid program, which pays for medical services for children and adults with limited income and resources. Data for 2013 were preliminary as of August 2015. Data include children/youth enrolled in both Medi-Cal and Medicare. Figures may not match data by age and by race/ethnicity, which reflect average monthly enrollment over a fiscal year. Please visit the California Dept. of Health Care Services for more information.

Medicare Advantage (Part C) plans are run by private insurance companies and combine Medicare Parts A (hospital coverage) and B (doctor coverage) plus additional benefits all in one plan. Many plans also include prescription drug coverage and are known as MA-PD or Medicare Advantage with Prescription Drug plans. Medicare Advantage plans may come with no additional premium beyond what you already pay for Medicare Part B. To be eligible to enroll in a Medicare Advantage plan, you must have Original Medicare (Parts A and B) and continue to pay your Medicare Part B premium each month, unless it is otherwise paid for under Medicaid or by another party.

That’s what the Medicare Part C (Medicare Advantage) program is all about: it gives you an alternative way to receive your Original Medicare (Part A and Part B) coverage (everything except hospice care, which Part A still covers). Some Medicare Advantage plans include additional benefits as well – prescription drug coverage, for example, or routine dental services and/or fitness programs. These are just a few examples of additional benefits that some Medicare Advantage plans offer – benefits not included in Original Medicare.
Of the 35,476 total active applicants who participated in The National Resident Matching Program in 2016, 75.6% (26,836) were able to find PGY-1 (R-1) matches. Out of the total active applicants, 51.27% (18,187) were graduates of conventional US medical schools; 93.8% (17,057) were able to find a match. In comparison, match rates were 80.3% of osteopathic graduates, 53.9% of US citizen international medical school graduates, and 50.5% of non-US citizen international medical schools graduates.[106]
Humana’s pharmacy network offers limited access to pharmacies with preferred cost sharing in urban areas of AL, CA, CT, DC, DE, GA, IA, IL, IN, KY, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NH, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, VA, VT, WA, WI, WV, WY; suburban areas of AZ, CA, CT, DC, DE, HI, IA, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MT, ND, NH, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, PR, RI, SD, VT, WA, WV, WY; and rural areas of AK, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, VT, WY. There are an extremely limited number of preferred cost share pharmacies in urban areas in the following states: CT, DE, MA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MS, NC, ND, NY, OH, RI, SC, VT, WA; suburban areas of: MT and ND; and rural areas of: ND. The lower costs advertised in our plan materials for these pharmacies may not be available at the pharmacy you use. For up-to-date information about our network pharmacies, including pharmacies with preferred cost sharing, please call Customer Care at 1-800-281-6918 (TTY: 711) or consult the online pharmacy directory at Humana.com.
As a result, an estimated 320,000 Medicare Cost enrollees in Minnesota need new coverage for 2019. There are 21 counties where Medicare Cost plans will continue to be available, but Medicare Cost enrollees in the remaining counties cannot keep their Cost plans. Instead, they can either enroll in a Medicare Advantage plan (some will be automatically enrollees in a comparable Medicare Advantage plan, although they’ll have an option to pick something else instead), or select a Medigap plan to supplement their Original Medicare (enrollees whose Medicare Cost plans are ending have guaranteed issue rights to a Medigap plan, so they can purchase one even if they have pre-existing medical conditions).
Medicare Part A provides payments for in-patient hospital, hospice, and skilled nursing services. Part B provides payments for most physician and surgical services, even some in hospitals and skilled nursing facilities, as well as for medically-necessary outpatient hospital services such as ER, surgical center, laboratory, X-rays and diagnostic tests, certain preventative medical services, and certain durable medical equipment and supplies. Part C health plans, including Medicare Advantage plans, not only cover the same medical services as Parts A and B but also typically include an annual physical exam and vision and/or dental coverage of some sort not covered under Original Medicare Parts A and B. Less often, hearing and wellness benefits not found in Original Medicare are included in a Medicare Advantage plan. The most important difference between a Part C health plan and FFS Original Medicare is that all Part C plans, including capitated-fee Medicare Advantage plans, include a limit on how much a beneficiary will have to spend annually out of pocket; that amount is unlimited in Original Medicare Parts A and B.
Minnesota Medicare Part D is specifically for prescription drug coverage. It has something unique to it called the coverage gap. The coverage gap works similar to a deductible. Beneficiaries have to pay a certain amount determined by the coverage gap before they can get discounted prices. How large the discount, and what prescription drugs it applies to, is determined by the private insurance provider.

Minnesota Medicare claims are generally not filed by beneficiaries. MN Medicare claim forms must often be filed out by doctors and medical providers. A Medicare claim can be made within a year of first receiving the provided service. It is still possible to file claims after this time period, but Medicare is in no way legally obligated to make any payments. Beneficiaries might get lucky, especially if there were extenuating circumstances for why they were unable to file a Medicare claim in the first place.
Preferred Provider Organization (PPO) plans: This type of Medicare Advantage plan offers more provider flexibility. PPOs typically have a preferred provider network, but you may also use out-of-network doctors if you choose, although your cost sharing may be higher. Unlike HMOs, you don’t need referrals for specialist care and you aren’t required to have a primary care doctor.
Increased access channels for new applications and additional eligibility verification resources helped increase enrollment following ACA implementation. Increased promotion through health fairs and community events as well partnership with other agencies have contributed to eligible individuals learning about and enrolling in Medi-Cal, as have targeted enrollment efforts such as assisting jail inmates in applying for coverage prior to reentry, use of community based organizations (CBOs) to assist clients in applying online, and placing HSA staff in the community to conduct outreach and enrollment.
Of the Medicare beneficiaries who are not dual eligible for both Medicare (around 20%) and Medicaid or that do not receive supplemental insurance via a former employer (40%) or a public Part C Medicare Advantage health plan (about 30%), almost all elect to purchase a type of private supplemental insurance coverage, called a Medigap plan (20%), to help fill in the financial holes in Original Medicare (Part A and B). Note that the percentages add up to over 100% because many beneficiaries have more than one type of supplement. These Medigap insurance policies are standardized by CMS, but are sold and administered by private companies. Some Medigap policies sold before 2006 may include coverage for prescription drugs. Medigap policies sold after the introduction of Medicare Part D on January 1, 2006 are prohibited from covering drugs. Medicare regulations prohibit a Medicare beneficiary from being sold both a public Part C Medicare Advantage health plan and a private Medigap Policy. As with public Part C health plans, private Medigap policies are only available to beneficiaries who are already signed up for benefits from Original Medicare Part A and Part B. These policies are regulated by state insurance departments rather than the federal government though CMS outlines what the various Medigap plans must cover at a minimum. Therefore, the types and prices of Medigap policies vary widely from state to state and the degree of underwriting, open enrollment and guaranteed issue also varies widely from state to state.
School health centers provide access to health care for many children. In 2018, California had 258 school health centers, up from 153 in 2009. However, nearly half of the state's counties (27 of 58) did not have any school health centers in 2018. When asked whether their school provides adequate health services for students, 23% of responses from elementary school staff, 20% of responses by middle school staff, 19% of responses by high school staff, and 25% of responses by staff at non-traditional schools reported strong agreement in 2013-2015.
Medicare Part D went into effect on January 1, 2006. Anyone with Part A or B is eligible for Part D, which covers mostly self-administered drugs. It was made possible by the passage of the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003. To receive this benefit, a person with Medicare must enroll in a stand-alone Prescription Drug Plan (PDP) or Medicare Advantage plan with integrated prescription drug coverage (MA-PD). These plans are approved and regulated by the Medicare program, but are actually designed and administered by private health insurance companies and pharmacy benefit managers. Unlike Original Medicare (Part A and B), Part D coverage is not standardized (though it is highly regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services). Plans choose which drugs they wish to cover (but must cover at least two drugs in 148 different categories and cover all or "substantially all" drugs in the following protected classes of drugs: anti-cancer; anti-psychotic; anti-convulsant, anti-depressants, immuno-suppressant, and HIV and AIDS drugs). The plans can also specify with CMS approval at what level (or tier) they wish to cover it, and are encouraged to use step therapy. Some drugs are excluded from coverage altogether and Part D plans that cover excluded drugs are not allowed to pass those costs on to Medicare, and plans are required to repay CMS if they are found to have billed Medicare in these cases.[45]

When you enroll in an attained-age plan, your rates will increase as you age. Our rates will only increase due to age when you move from one age band to the next. In addition, rate adjustments will also be due to medical inflation or overall claims experience. Rates are subject to change June 1 of each year and are guaranteed for 12 months. Any change in rate will be preceded by a 30-day notice. Members will not be singled out for premium increases based on their individual health. Medicare policies that are attained-age should be compared to issue-age rated policies. Premiums for issue-age policies do not increase due to age as the insured ages.


Since the Medicare program began, the CMS (that was not always the name of the responsible bureaucracy) has contracted with private insurance companies to operate as intermediaries between the government and medical providers to administer Part A and Part B benefits. Contracted processes include claims and payment processing, call center services, clinician enrollment, and fraud investigation. Beginning in 1997 and 2005, respectively, these, along with other insurance companies and other companies or organizations (such as integrated health delivery systems or unions), also began administering Part C and Part D plans.
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